Chemical, Biological & Steroid Cleanup Activities


1. Chemical Cleaning/Remediation/Decontamination/Decommissioning

1.1. Chemical cleaning

Chemical cleaning is a method to derive surfaces and walls of equipment, pipelines, vessels, kettles and heat exchangers of unwanted contaminants. Chemical cleaning also means the purification, conditioning, treatment or disinfection of water.

Here, we will provide you with an overview of all chemical cleaning methods and their applications. We will also name alternatives and environmentally friendly solutions.

• Limestone removal and scaling prevention for heat exchangers, pipelines and kettle walls
• Biofilm removal for equipment that has been in touch with water
• Legionella disinfection
• Surface disinfection and suture activation with UV-radiation
• Ozone disinfection and oxidation for several applications
• Surface corrosion treatment
• Scent removal off walls, pipelines
• Corrosion prevention in CV-pipes, aluminum silo’s and systems with various materials

Legionella control
In the prevention and control of legionnaires disease (legionella) causing microbes, chlorine dioxide has taken an eminent roll. The specific characteristics of the disinfectant make sure ClO2 gets the job done where others fail.
Biofilm in the piping can protect legionella from most of the disinfectants.
Chlorine dioxide, however, removes the biofilm and kills bacteria, spores and viruses.

Corrosion treatment

Corrosion treatment is a kind of water treatment that serves the prevention of corrosion in plumbing systems of various materials, such as rustproof steel, carbon steel, copper and aluminum.

Open plumbing systems

An "open system" means that the water in a plumbing system can come in contact with outside air and, as a result, with oxygen. The system is open because of a connection with an open storage barrel or a vertical pipe. Oxygen dust or contaminants may be added to the system in time through the openings.

Oxygen and contaminants that are added to the system can enhance microbial activity. Consequentially biofilm formation may occur. This may cause negative effects, such as slime formation and stuffing of pipes and heat exchangers.

The MACK Group can offer various solutions to these problems, for instance, UV-disinfection, ozonization, bio dispersant dosing, and other chemical solutions.

Sampling equipment and measurements

The MACK Group can supply companies with various test sets for the monitoring of several parameters, such as pH, conductivity, hardness, microbial contamination, and inhibitor concentrations.

If you would like us to advise you on the situation of your plumbing system and the steps you can take to remove and prevent corrosion, please send us an overview of the arrangement of your system and your water analysis.
If necessary we could perform water analyses for you.

1.2. Chemical Remediation

In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), a form of advanced oxidation processes and advanced oxidation technology is an environmental remediation technique used for soil and/or groundwater remediation to reduce the concentrations of targeted environmental contaminants to acceptable levels.

Environmental remediation deals with the removal of pollution or contaminants from environmental media such as soil, groundwater, sediment, or surface water. Remedial action is generally subject to an array of regulatory requirements, and may also be based on assessments of human health and ecological risks where no legislative standards exist, or where standards are advisory.

In situ chemical oxidation

In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), a form of advanced oxidation processes and advanced oxidation technology is an environmental remediation technique used for soil and/or groundwater remediation to reduce the concentrations of targeted environmental contaminants to acceptable levels.

1.3. Chemical Decontamination

What is the chemical decontamination?

Decontamination (sometimes abbreviated as decon, dcon, or decontam) is the process of cleansing an object or substance to remove contaminants such as micro-organisms or hazardous materials, including chemicals, radioactive substances, and infectious diseases.

The purpose of decontamination is to prevent the spread of micro-organisms and other noxious contaminants that may threaten the health of human beings or animals, or damage the environment.

1.4. Chemical Decommissioning

Relocating, downsizing, or shutting down a laboratory can feel daunting. Years of experiments lead to an accumulation of chemicals that require appropriate handling and disposal and equipment that must be decontaminated and decommissioned. Workspaces must also be decontaminated prior to being vacated. Opting for decontamination and decommissioning service provider with the ability to design a custom plan based on your lab’s specific needs while adhering to health and safety requirements ensures a smooth transition.

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2. Biological Cleaning/Remediation/Decontamination/Decommissioning

2.1. Biological Cleaning

Biological Technology

Cleaning agents generally separate soils from fabric or surface substrate by dissolving or suspending them in a water or solvent liquid solution to be carried away when the solution is removed.
The cleaning action of the primary formulation components is supplemented by additives to optimize the performance of the cleaners.

Understanding biological cleaning products

Biological cleaning products are simple enough to understand, yet are rather fascinating. Also known as ‘microbial’ or ‘bacterial’ cleaning products, they contain one or more species of ‘useful’ bacteria that are able to secrete enzymes to break down soil and then consume it. As there are so many different types of bacteria, the bacteria included in the product must be correct for the intended purpose, and they will multiply as long as there is food for them to consume and the conditions are right.

Biological Cleaning in Hospitality

Biological cleaning products are generally considered to be products that use good bacteria and the enzymes they produce as cleaning agents. These friendly bacteria can also produce other actives including acids, polymers and other cleaning agents.
How does biological cleaning work in practice? Different dirt sources, such as fats, oils, food debris, body fat, and body waste are all good source of food for The MACK Group’s positive bacteria, which produce enzymes to help them break down the waste, which can be likened to us producing saliva to help us eat our food.
Housekeeping, unlike any other cleaning sector, is very unique where high standards are required with very little time to “turn rooms around”.


2.2. Biological Remediation

Biological remediation, a process defined as the use of microorganisms or plants to detoxify or remove organic and inorganic xenobiotic compounds from the environment is a remediation option that offers green technology solutions to the problem of environmental degradation.

What can bioremediation clean up?

Bioremediation is the process by which microbes (generally bacteria) or plants transform a harmful water contaminant into a non-harmful substance, much as we turn sugar into carbon dioxide and water. Bioremediation can help clean up groundwater contaminated with gasoline, solvents, and other contaminants.

What are the benefits of bioremediation?

Bioremediation has been successfully used to clean up pollutants including crude oil, gasoline, pesticides, sewage, and chlorinated solvents used in cleaning supplies. The benefits of bioremediation include lower costs and less disruption of the contaminated environment when compared to other clean up methods.


2.3. Biological Decontamination

Biological decontamination is required in any environment involving the processing of tissue and micro-organisms. This can range from areas within hospitals to research institutions. The MACK Group Environmental Services provides bio-decontamination services to companies and organizations in many different sectors.

Routine Decontamination

The MACK Group offers routine biological decontamination services as part of a cleanroom services contract. On completion of a cleanroom validation visit, we effectively sterilize the area, using the latest, technologically advanced ionized Hydrogen Peroxide decontamination (iHP), to ensure the facility is left safe and ready for use.

Emergency Decontamination

Regular cleanroom maintenance and testing visits under contract will include decontamination as a matter of course. However, in addition to this, cleanrooms and other facilities may need one-off sterilization at short notice following a specific concern.
This could be because there has been a spillage of a known pathogenic or contaminating substance or breakage of equipment causing a risk of contamination. Monitoring systems may also have detected an unexpected occurrence of a pathogen, or unusually pathogenic substance, or there could be suspicion or discovery of unusually high levels of contamination.

Biological Decontamination from The MACK Group

The MACK Group is able to carry out routine or emergency decontamination as required, for all types of lab, cleanroom or healthcare environment. We use the latest iHP technology, which means that bio-contaminants, including spores and viruses, can be reduced to below detectable levels, creating a clean and sterile environment.
IHP is a very environmentally friendly solution because it is non-corrosive and quickly breaks down into water and oxygen after the process is completed. It is also fast-acting, working within seconds, without posing any risk of toxicity to people in the area or harming equipment.

The MACK Group offers a regular cleanroom monitoring service, combining maintenance with validation and keeping all records to ensure regulatory compliance. By regularly visiting and keeping a close eye on how well the cleanroom is working and the performance of all systems and equipment, we can help to minimize the number of events where biological decontamination is needed. As well as offering contracts, we can also visit as needed if there is an emergency.
Biological Decontamination – Contact The MACK Group to find out more about our expert cleanroom services.


2.4. Biological Decommissioning

Laboratory Decommissioning Procedure

SMU employees responsible for laboratory facilities and operations are required to follow this Laboratory Decommissioning Procedure prior to vacating any laboratory or other space where chemical, biological, or radioactive agents have been used or stored.

Events requiring decommissioning of a laboratory include:

●    Terminating affiliation with Southern Methodist University
●    Relocating to another laboratory space
●    Major laboratory renovation
●    Retirement from research pursuits

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3. Steroid Cleaning/Remediation/Decontamination/Decommissioning

3.1. Steroid Cleaning


Here are some facts you should know:

What are anabolic steroids?
Anabolic steroids are drugs that are derived from testosterone, which is a male hormone. Some are in tablet form and others are injected into a muscle.

When you buy steroids from a gym or a dealer, you may actually be getting something totally different. They may be drugs produced for use on animals or they may be fake or labeled incorrectly.

Anabolic steroids are very different from steroids (corticosteroids) such as prednisone, which is used to treat asthma. This pamphlet does not refer to the steroids used in asthma treatment.

Are anabolic steroids safe?

NO. There are risks in using anabolic steroids in both injectable or tablet form. Most anabolic steroid tablets present definite risks of permanent liver damage and liver cancer. It is not safe to share needles with any drug.

If you inject anabolic steroids and share needles, you are at risk of getting blood transmitted infections such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C or HIV/AIDS.

How do I clean anabolic steroids?

PCT is used to regenerate natural testosterone levels, not for clean steroids.
There are some steps to clean drugs naturally.

The primary goal of natural drug detoxification is to eliminate the toxins and remnants accumulated in your body as a result of using illegal or pharmaceutical drugs. This can be accomplished through the process of detoxification. Your liver processes all drugs as toxic compounds to be removed later by your body. If the remnants of these drugs are not removed, liver toxicity can occur.

3.2. Steroid Remediation

Processes for the elimination of estrogenic steroid hormones from water

Natural estrogens such as estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), and the synthetic one, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), are excreted by humans and animals and enter into environment through discharge of domestic sewage effluents and disposal of animal waste.

The occurrence of these substances in aquatic ecosystems may affect the endocrine system of humans and wildlife so it has emerged as a major concern for water quality. Extensive research has been carried out during the last decades on the efficiency of the degradation and/or removal of these hormones in sewage treatment plants (STPs).

Conventional and advanced treatments have been investigated by different authors for the elimination of estrogens from water. This paper aims to review the different processes and treatments that have been applied for the elimination of E1, E2, E3, and EE2 from water.

With this purpose, physical, biological and advanced oxidation processes (AOP) have been addressed.

3.3. Steroid Decontamination

WHO good manufacturing practices for pharmaceutical products containing hazardous substances


Facilities should be designed and operated in accordance with the main GMP principles, as follows: — To ensure the quality of the product; — to protect the operators from possible harmful effects of products containing hazardous substances; and — to protect the environment from contamination and thereby protect the public from possible harmful effects of products containing hazardous substances.

The production of certain products containing hazardous substances should generally be conducted in separate, dedicated, self-contained facilities. These self-contained facilities may be in the same building as another facility but should be separated by a physical barrier and have, e.g. separate entrances, staff facilities, and air-handling systems. The extent of the separation from adjacent facilities and the sharing of common services should be determined by risk assessment.

In general, these manufacturing facilities should be regarded as containment facilities.

The effective operation of a facility may require the combination of some or all of the following aspects:
— appropriate facility design and layout, with the emphasis on safely containing the materials being handled. Manufacturing processes using closed systems or barrier technology enhance operator and product protection;
— manufacturing process controls including adherence to standard operating procedures (SOPs);
— appropriately designed environmental control systems (ECS) or heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC);
— extraction systems;
— personal protective equipment (PPE);
— appropriate degowning and decontamination procedures;
— industrial hygiene (monitoring staff exposure levels);
— medical surveillance (monitoring staff exposure levels); and
— administrative controls.

For more information about WHO good manufacturing practices for pharmaceutical products containing hazardous substances click here >>


3.4. Steroid Decommissioning


Decommissioning (also called abandonment) is the process by which the owner-operator of an offshore oil or gas installation will plan, gain approval for, and implement the removal, disposal, or reuse of an installation when it is no longer needed for its current purpose (Jahn et al., 1998; Ekins et al., 2006). From: Subsea and Deepwater Oil and Gas Science and Technology, 2015

What Does Decommissioning Mean?

Decommissioning can be defined in different ways by different companies, but for Hughes and Salvidge it predominantly refers to our work involved in the scheduled shut-down and ceasing of operations of Industrial, Chemical, Petrochemical, Power or Nuclear facilities.

Demolition of structures or buildings can sometimes be referred to as decommissioning, and these two elements of our business often coincide and collaborate on large scale Industrial, Chemical, Petrochemical, Power or Nuclear projects.

What does decommissioning consist of?

Principally though, decommissioning works for Hughes and Salvidge constitutes the following:
The works involved in decommissioning of Industrial, Chemical, Petrochemical, Power or Nuclear facilities or plants encompass a detailed process and, like the demolition works that often follow on such projects, require defined surveying, planning, and management throughout the works.

Decontamination and industrial cleaning

Decontamination and industrial cleaning of elements such as plant, machinery, equipment, and pipework within a facility is often the first phase of work. Only once this is completed and the areas signed off can the strip-out and removal phase of the decommissioning work begin.

For more information about our Steroid Cleaning/Remediation/Decontamination/Decommissioning service click here >>