Steroid Cleaning/Remediation/Decontamination/Decommissioning

Steroid Cleaning

ANABOLIC STEROIDS - LET’S GET THE FACTS RIGHT

ARE YOU USING STEROIDS OR THINKING ABOUT IT?

Here are some facts you should know:

What are anabolic steroids? Anabolic steroids are drugs which are derived from testosterone,which is a male hormone. Some are in tablet form and others are injected into muscle.

Some names of anabolic steroids are:

• Andriol
• Halotestin
• Proviron
• Sustanon
• Primobolan
• Deca-Durabolin

When you buy steroids from a gym or a dealer, you may actually be getting something totally different. They may be drugs produced for use on animals or they may be fake or labelled incorrectly.

Some names of steroids which are made for use on animals are:

• Stanozolol
• Boldebal-H
• Nandrabolin
• Spectriol
• Drive
• Stanabolic

Anabolic steroids are very different from steroids (corticosteroids) such as prednisone, which is used to treat asthma. This pamphlet does not refer to the steroids used in asthma treatment.

Are anabolic steroids safe?

NO. There are risks in using anabolic steroids in both injectable or tablet form. Most anabolic steroid tablets present definite risks of permanent liver damage and liver cancer. It is not safe to share needles with any drug.

If you inject anabolic steroids and share needles, you are at risk of getting blood transmitted infections such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C or HIV/AIDS.

While it is true that many of the risks and side effects associated with using anabolic steroids have been exaggerated by some health professionals, sporting bodies, the media, and handbooks, not all steroids will cause the same side effects.

Different drugs cause different side effects at different doses. However, every time you use another steroid, increase the steroid dose and the longer you use steroids, the more chance you have of getting more side effects.

AT BEST YOU MAY BE RIPPED OFF, AT WORST YOU COULD END UP TAKING SOMETHING HARMFUL OR CONTAMINATED.

Is there a safe dosage for anabolic steroids?

There is no ‘safe’ dose of an anabolic steroid. If you continue to use steroids, despite health warnings and your doctor's advice, however, keep the dose to an absolute minimum and take breaks from using the steroids.

Do anabolic steroids work?

The answer to this is controversial. If you speak to athletes, body builders, trainers and some doctors, who have used or had experiences with anabolic steroids, they are certain that anabolic steroids increase lean muscle mass, strength, and endurance.

But scientific studies have only shown that anabolic steroids enhance physical performance through the effect of training, diet and motivation, which accompany the use of the drugs.

Will anabolic steroids work better if I use more?

NO. Don’t believe everything you read in handbooks and magazines – they will tell you about ways of using anabolic steroids through complicated ‘scientific’ explanations, which are often not based on science at all. Higher doses don’t have much more of an effect than lower doses because the anabolic steroid receptor sites in muscle become saturated. There is really no point in taking extra anabolic steroids when they have no extra effects on your build – and can certainly cause more side effects.

Are anabolic steroids used for medical reasons?

YES. Anabolic steroids are used to treat certain hormonal problems, where there is a deficiency of natural male hormones.They are also being trialed in the treatment of weight loss caused by HIV/AIDS infection. Anabolic steroids are used to treat some cancers, osteoporosis and some rare conditions. Even when anabolic steroids are used for medical purposes, they are only used when other drugs have not worked. Body building or improvement to sporting performance are not medical reasons for using anabolic steroids.

Should I tell my doctor if I use anabolic steroids?

YES. Your doctor may discover early side effects from using anabolic steroids, which you may not have noticed. They can also give you advice on how to decrease the side effects.

POTENTIAL SIDE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT ANABOLIC STEROIDS

Here is a list of some side effects which may be caused by anabolic steroids. Most side effects normally stop – if you stop using the drugs.

MEN:

●    Jaundice (yellowing of skin or eyes)
●    Aggressiveness
●    Development of breast tissue
●    Permanent liver damage Liver tumors
●    Diabetes
●    Baldness, acne
●    Heart problems – abnormal heart rhythms (due to using with diuretics), high blood pressure, fluid retention and/or heart attack
●    High cholesterol levels
●    Infertility, increased libido
●    Stunted growth in children and teenagers

WOMEN:

●    Jaundice (yellowing of skin or eyes)
●    Facial hair, acne
●    Effects on the unborn child if taken during pregnancy
●    Permanent liver damage Liver tumors
●    Diabetes
●    Permanent deep voice
●    Heart problems – abnormal heart rhythms (due to using with diuretics), high blood pressure, fluid retention, heart attack
●    High cholesterol levels
●    Problems with periods
●    Enlarged clitoris

Why can’t my doctor prescribe steroids for me?

It is illegal for your doctor to prescribe anabolic steroids, unless they are to be used for medical reasons. A few people have suggested that doctors should prescribe anabolic steroids so that steroid users can be ‘monitored’.Very few experts agree with this.This is because there is no safe way of ‘monitoring’ the use of steroids.Also, the long-term effects of using anabolic steroids are unknown.There is no ‘safe’ dose, so a doctor cannot safely prescribe anabolic steroids for non-medical reasons.

Can I become ‘addicted’ to anabolic steroids?

You may become psychologically dependent on anabolic steroids. If this happens you may crave the steroids and find it very difficult to stop using them, even though you know they are affecting your health. You cannot become physically ‘addicted’ to anabolic steroids, as you might with alcohol or heroin.

What other psychological effects can anabolic steroid users experience?

Anabolic steroid users often say that they experience a feeling of euphoria (feeling high) or improved self-esteem (feeling better about themselves). Others say they have mood swings, violent or aggressive behavior (‘roid rages’), become paranoid or depressed. As only a limited amount of research has been done in this area, it is difficult to be certain whether a particular anabolic steroid user will get any or all of these side effects. If you think you are experiencing any of these side effects, you should discuss them with your doctor.

Am I safe from anabolic steroid side effects if I have regular blood tests to check my liver?

NO. There is no definite way of ‘monitoring’ that anabolic steroids are not causing side effects on the liver. A normal blood test does not necessarily mean that your liver is normal.

IF YOU DO INJECT ANABOLIC STEROIDS, DON’T SHARE NEEDLES AND USE A STERILE NEEDLE EVERY TIME.

Is it safe to use HCG, diuretics, tamoxifen and other drugs to treat side effects?

NO. Generally, it is not safe to use other drugs to treat the side effects. Depending on the drug, they can cause as many problems as anabolic steroids themselves. It is particularly dangerous to use diuretics (drugs that reduce fluid retention) with anabolic steroids.

They may cause abnormal heart rhythms which may lead to death. This is because diuretics can suddenly and markedly change the quantity of sodium and potassium in cells in the body, which can be very dangerous for blood cells, the heart muscle and brain tissue.

HCG does not correct any medical problems caused by steroids, and using tamoxifen to ‘treat’ breast enlargement has its dangers too. In most cases, breast enlargement will stop, if you stop using the drug. If not, breast enlargement may need to be corrected by surgery.

THE BEST WAY TO BE SAFE IS NOT TO USE ANABOLIC STEROIDS AT ALL. IF YOU CHOOSE TO USE STEROIDS THERE ARE SOME STEPS YOU CAN TAKE TO REDUCE THE HARM YOU WILL EXPERIENCE.

If I am using anabolic steroids, how can I decrease side effects?

Obviously, the best way to be safe is not to use anabolic steroids at all. But if you are using anabolic steroids you should:
• use low doses
• don’t share needles or syringes with other people
• use a clean needle from an unopened package with every injection and make sure the injection site is sterile
• avoid using diuretics with anabolic steroids
• avoid using other drugs to ‘treat’ side effects if they develop and avoid using steroids altogether
• let your doctor know that you are using anabolic steroids and talk about it
• make sure you know exactly what tablets you are taking. If you are not sure what they are, then find out before you take them. Also, make sure that any tablet you take has not been tampered with.

Is it illegal to use and possess anabolic steroids for non-medical purposes in NSW?

YES. If you are found to possess, supply or administer anabolic steroids to another person it is an offense under the Poisons and Therapeutic Goods Act 1966. Penalties for breach of this Act include fines and/or imprisonment.

Is the use of anabolic steroids and other performance-enhancing substances banned in competitive sport?

YES. In competitive sport, the International Olympic Committee prohibits the use of anabolic steroids for performance enhancement. Most individual sporting bodies will stop athletes from competing if they are found to have used anabolic steroids.

BE INFORMED, BE AWARE, BE SENSIBLE, BE SAFE.

Where can I get advice on which drugs are banned in sport?

The independent Australian Sports Drug Agency (ASDA) can provide you with information about banned drugs.ASDA was established in 1991 and its major functions include implementing education programs aimed at both the sporting and general community, establishing a comprehensive drug-testing program and assisting the sporting community on drugs in sport policy issues.

ASDA maintains a service for sports people to provide up-to-date and accurate advice on which drugs are banned in sport. The ASDA can be contacted Mon-Fri, 8.30am-5.00pm on Tel. (02) 6206 0200.

Is there anyone that I can talk to about anabolic steroids?

YES. It is a good idea to discuss your anabolic steroid use with your doctor. Your doctor can help you stop using anabolic steroids and tell you how to try to get as few side effects as possible if you are using them.

How do I clean anabolic steroids?

PCT is used to regenerate natural testosterone levels, not for clean steroids.
There are some steps to clean drugs naturally.

The primary goal of natural drug detoxification is to eliminate the toxins and remnants accumulated in your body as a result of using illegal or pharmaceutical drugs. This can be accomplished through the process of detoxification. Your liver processes all drugs as toxic compounds to be removed later by your body. If the remnants of these drugs are not removed, liver toxicity can occur.

Step 1

Drink nine to 12 glasses of clean drinking water daily. Drinking enough water can help your kidney and liver functions to help flush out drug remnants.

Step 2

Do cardiovascular exercise. Exercising strengthens and stimulates your liver, kidneys and other vital organs. It also helps eliminate drug remnants through sweat.

Step 3

Eat 2 oz. to 3 oz. of dried or fresh seaweed daily. Sodium alginate is the active ingredient of seaweed.

Step 4

Take one 500mg dandelion flower tablet with food every day. The active ingredient of this flower is inulin, which helps enhances the flow of bile while helping your liver detoxify the drug remnants from your internal organs.
Warning- This step is not a substitute for seeking medical advice from your physician or health-care professional.

 

Steroid Remediation

Processes for the elimination of estrogenic steroid hormones from water

Natural estrogens such as estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), and the synthetic one, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), are excreted by humans and animals and enter into environment through discharge of domestic sewage effluents and disposal of animal waste.

The occurrence of these substances in aquatic ecosystems may affect the endocrine system of humans and wildlife so it has emerged as a major concern for water quality. Extensive research has being carried out during the last decades on the efficiency of the degradation and/or removal of these hormones in sewage treatment plants (STPs).

Conventional and advanced treatments have been investigated by different authors for the elimination of estrogens from water. This paper aims to review the different processes and treatments that have been applied for the elimination of E1, E2, E3, and EE2 from water.

With this purpose, physical, biological and advanced oxidation processes (AOP) have been addressed.

 


Removal of estrogens through water disinfection processes and formation of by-products

Estrogens constitute a recognized group of environmental emerging contaminants that have been proven to induce estrogenic effects in aquatic organisms exposed to them. Low removal efficiency in wastewater treatment plants results in the presence of this type of contaminants in surface waters and also even in finished drinking water.

This manuscript reviews the environmental occurrence of natural (estrone, estradiol, and estriol) and synthetic (ethynyl estradiol) estrogens in different water matrices (waste, surface, ground and drinking water), and their removal mainly via chemical oxidative processes.

Oxidative treatments have been observed to be very efficient in eliminating estrogens present in water; however, disinfection by-products (DBPs) are generated during the process. Characterization of these DBPs is essential to assess the risk that drinking water may potentially pose to human health since these DBPs may also have endocrine-disrupting properties.

This manuscript reviews the DBPs generated during oxidative processes identified so far in the literature and the estrogenicity generated by the characterized DBPs and/or by the applied disinfection technology.

Removal and Biodegradation of 17β-Estradiol and Diethylstilbestrol by the Freshwater Microalgae Raphidocelis subcapitata.
Natural steroidal and synthetic non-steroidal estrogens such as 17β-estradiol (E2) and diethylstilbestrol (DES) have been found in natural water, which can potentially endanger public health and aquatic ecosystems. The removal and biodegradation of E2 and DES by Raphidocelis subcapitata were studied in bacteria-free cultures exposed to single and mixture treatments at different concentrations for 96 h.

The results showed that R. subcapitata exhibited a rapid and strong ability to remove E2 and DES in both single and mixture treatments by biodegradation. At the end of 96 h, the removal percentage of single E2 and DES achieved 82.0%, 80.4%, 74.6% and 89.9%, 73.4%, 54.1% in 0.1, 0.5, and 1.5 mg•L-1, respectively. With the exception of the 0.1 mg•L-1 treatment at 96 h, the removal capacity of E2 was more efficient than that of DES by R. subcapitata.

Furthermore, the removal percentage of mixture E2 and DES achieved 88.5%, 82.9%, 84.3% and 87.2%, 71.8%, 51.1% in 0.1, 0.5, and 1.5 mg•L-1, respectively. The removal percentage of mixed E2 was significantly higher than that of the single E2. The presence of DES could accelerate the removal of E2 from the mixture treatments in equal concentrations.

In addition, the removal was mainly attributed to the biodegradation or biotransformation process by the microalgae cells rather than simple sorption and accumulation in the cells. The microalgae R. subcapitata demonstrated a high capability for the removal of the E2 and DES indicating future prospects for its application.

 

Evaluating Removal of Steroid Estrogens by a Model Alga as a Possible Sustainability Benefit of Hypothetical Integrated Algae Cultivation and Wastewater Treatment Systems

The wastewater treatment field is increasing its emphasis on energy and resource recovery, while still prioritizing environmental protection. In this vein, there is growing interest in the integration of algae cultivation and wastewater as a means to produce bioenergy while also removing dissolved nutrients.

This paper assesses algae-mediated removal of estrogenic steroid hormones, which is an important but previously undocumented water quality benefit for municipal and livestock waste treatment facilities because these entities discharge significant amounts of estrogens and nutrients. Bench-scale experiments were used to investigate the apparent removal of four steroid hormones by a model alga, Scenedesmus dimorphus. Removal efficiencies were roughly 85% for 17α-estradiol and estrone and 95% for 17β-estradiol and estriol over eight days. Sorption, direct-photolysis, and algae-mediated biotransformation were evaluated as possible removal mechanisms.

Removal was mainly achieved by algae-mediated biotransformation, and a partial mechanism has been proposed based on observed products. A bioassay indicates that removal of the parent estrogens does not always remove an estrogenic activity, although estrogenicity associated with 17β-estradiol did decrease slightly. Overall, this study highlights a novel synergy between water and energy sustainability in integrated algae farming and wastewater treatment systems.

These systems should be studied further to see if energy production could motivate the voluntary removal of currently unregulated emerging contaminants.

 

Steroid Decommissioning

Decommissioning

Decommissioning (also called abandonment) is the process by which the owner-operator of an offshore oil or gas installation will plan, gain approval for, and implement the removal, disposal, or reuse of an installation when it is no longer needed for its current purpose (Jahn et al., 1998; Ekins et al.,
2006). From: Subsea and Deepwater Oil and Gas Science and Technology, 2015


What Does Decommissioning Mean?

Decommissioning can be defined in different ways by different companies, but for Hughes and Salvidge it predominantly refers to our work involved in the scheduled shut-down and ceasing of operations of Industrial, Chemical, Petrochemical, Power or Nuclear facilities.

Demolition of structures or buildings can sometimes be referred to as decommissioning, and these two elements of our business often coincide and collaborate on large scale Industrial, Chemical, Petrochemical, Power or Nuclear projects.
 

What does decommissioning consist of?

Principally though, decommissioning works for Hughes and Salvidge constitutes the following:
The works involved in decommissioning Industrial, Chemical, Petrochemical, Power or Nuclear facilities or plants encompass a detailed process and, like the demolition works that often follow on such projects, require defined surveying, planning, and management throughout the works.

Decommissioning plan

A decommissioning plan and scope of works will be produced and risk assessments and method statements, along with a program of works environmental management plan and site waste management plan, will be compiled and agreed with the client and authorities before any work can commence.

Decontamination and industrial cleaning

Decontamination and industrial cleaning of elements such as plant, machinery, equipment, and pipework within a facility is often the first phase of work. Only once this is completed and the areas signed off can the strip-out and removal phase of the decommissioning work begin.

Strip-out and removal

On occasion, the plant, machinery and equipment is to be transferred to another facility or plant for re-use, at the request of the client. The strip-out and removal process needs to be more intricate so as not to cause damage.
If the decommissioned plant, machinery or equipment is not to be transferred to another facility then these elements are transferred to a licensed recycling and waste facility and this will conform with the site waste management plan agreed at the start of the project.

Monitoring and progress evaluation

In line with all Hughes and Salvidge projects, continued project monitoring and progress evaluation will be conducted throughout the duration of the project. We believe in providing the safest, most practical and cost-effective solution for strategic decommissioning. Applied project KPI’s are continuously monitored and client feedback incorporated, thus providing optimum client satisfaction to budget and program.

Structural demolition works

Once a site has been decommissioned, any scheduled demolition works of structures or buildings can take place.
Such decommissioning and demolition works can often take place when a portion of the facility or plant is remaining operational, so our typical high levels of operational and health and safety procedures are at the forefront of our approach.
Phased decommissioning and demolition works are often adopted, as with our project at Versalis Chemical Plant in Hythe, Southampton, to eliminate risk and disruption to the remainder of the facility and its staff.

Survey and site handover

Once all decommissioning and demolition works have been completed a survey and handover is completed to release the site for the next stage of its development.

How long does decommissioning take?

Decommissioning phases of projects can vary in duration, depending on the scale of the plant or facility to be decommissioned, the level of decontamination and industrial cleaning of the plant, machinery or equipment, whether such arisings are to be retained for another facility or plant or recycled, and whether the works are to be carried out in agreed phasing to allow the continued operation of another area of the facility or plant.